Friday, April 12, 2024

Review of The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World by Iain McGilchrist

This book review was written by Eugene Kernes   

Book can be found in: 
Genre = Psychology
Intriguing Connections = 1) Why Do People Think Differently?, 2) To Cooperate Or To Defect?

Watch Short Review

Excerpts

“Understanding hemisphere difference offers a perspective on the structure of mind which is not available merely by introspection.  If in everyday life we were aware of the discrepancies in the view, or ‘take’, on the world each hemisphere offers, it would render the immediate business of survival impracticable.  For this reason, nature has taken care that these discrepancies should not be part of our everyday awareness.  Even on sustained introspection, we can be only indirectly aware of the fact that reality is constructed from two incompatible world views.  This fact becomes manifest, however, in the disputes of philosophers and theologians over the ages about the very nature of reality.” – Iain McGilchrist, Preface to the New Expanded Edition, Page 28

“The kind of attention we bring to bear on the world changes the nature of the world we attend to, the very nature of the world in which those “functions” would be carried out, and in which those “things” would exist.  Attention changes what kind of a thing comes into being for us: in that way it changes the world.” – Iain McGilchrist, Chapter 1: Asymmetry and the brain, Page 69

“There is even some evidence that we identify projectively with people with whom we share a common purpose – when we are co-operating in a task, for example – to such a degree that we seem to merge identity with them.  In ingeniously designed experiments where two participants are sitting next to one another, sharing a combined task, but with functionally independent roles, the two individuals appear spontaneously to function as one agent with a unified action plan.” – Iain McGilchrist, Chapter, Page 350

Review

Is This An Overview?

The brain has hemispheres that are involved in every task.  But, the way in which the hemispheres are involved are different.  Their roles are different.  They deal with the same information in different ways.  The different roles of the hemispheres enable the brain to function effectively, but the differences also provide different experiences of reality which creates conflict.  They have different values and priorities.  They function well when cooperating, but their competition with each other creates friction.  Problems occur when giving prominence to a hemisphere over another.  The problems occurring due to the conflict are felt indirectly, through culture.  Social problems develop through lack of tolerance at other methods of thinking, as they appear incompatible, with the other being wrong.

 

Caveats?

This book contains a myriad of different cultural and philosophical references.  Prior knowledge of the references would enable the reader to better understand the book.  References that can be interpreted to favor the primary claims about the hemispheric differences. 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?  Why do people read this book?
•What are some limitations of the book?
•To whom would you suggest this book?
•How does the brain use the hemispheres?
•How does each hemisphere experience reality?
•What enables effective functioning of the brain?
•What does each hemisphere process information?
•How do the hemispheres compete?
•What happens when a hemisphere expands? 
•How does the hemispheric competition effect society?
•Can the hemispheric differences be understood through introspection? 
•What has become of empathy?
•Why is there a need to teach people how to read faces? 
•How did evolution effect the brain? 
•What effect does attention have on experience? 
•What is the usual hemisphere division?  Why is it usual? 
•Are the hemispheres symmetrical? 
•How do hemispheres effect language? 
•How does language function?
•How to think about knowledge? 
•How does music effect people? 
•How does the left hemisphere think about responsibility and power? 
•What happens to people when they share a common purpose? 
•How does isolation effect people? 
•How do mainstream claims about what the hemispheres do compare to the author’s findings? 


Book Details
Edition:                  New Expanded Edition
Publisher:               Yale University Press
Edition ISBN:         9780300247459
Pages to read:          622
Publication:             2019
1st Edition:              2009
Format:                    eBook 

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    2
Content          2
Overall          2






Monday, April 8, 2024

Review of Circe by Madeline Miller

This book review was written by Eugene Kernes   

Book can be found in: 
Book Club Event = Book List (11/02/2024)
Intriguing Connections = 1) What Is The Power Of Belief Systems?



Watch Short Review

Excerpts

“I remembered how my father had once told me that on earth there were men called astronomers whose task it was to keep track of his rising and setting.  They were held in highest esteem among mortals, kept in palaces as counselors of kings, but sometimes my father lingered over one thing or another and threw their calculations into despair.  Then those astronomers were hauled before the kings they served and killed as frauds.  My father had smiled when he told me.  It was what they deserved, he said.  Helios the Sun was bound to no will but his own, and none might say what he would do.” – Madeline Miller, Chapter One, Page 15

“Let me say what sorcery is not: it is not divine power, which comes with a thought and a blink.  It must be made and worked, planned and searched out, dug up, dried, chopped and ground, cooked, spoken over, and sung.  Even after that, it can fail, as gods do not.  If my herbs are not fresh enough, if my attention falters, if my will is weak, the draughts go stale and rancid in my hands.” – Madeline Miller, Chapter Seven, Page 75

“Among the gods there are a few who have the gift of prophecy, the ability to peer into the murk and glimpse what fates will come.  Not everything may be foreseen.  Most gods and mortals have lives that are tied to nothing; they tangle and wend now here, now there, according to no set plan.  But then there are those who wear their destinies like nooses, whose lives run straight as planks, however they try to twist.  It is these that our prophets may see.” – Madeline Miller, Chapter Ten, Page 116


Review

Is This An Overview?

The immortals do not fear death, but they do fear power.  Among the immortals is a hierarchy defined by power, with Circe wielding none.  Sibling or not, many gods find ways to demean Circe.  Unlike most gods, Circe is interested in connecting to humans.  For such a connection, Circe discovered the power of witchcraft.  Power that Circe turned against a sibling as a method of retaliation.  Although other gods misused their power, Circe is used as a bargaining tool for those with more power and sent to exile. 

An exile that enables Circe to refine the powers of witchcraft.  The exile has its moments of loneliness, but also company.  Circe might not be able to leave the island, but many come to Circe.  From bandits, to heroes, to gods.  Experiences that Circe learns from.  Learns to become someone with power.  Learns that those who need help, might not be noble after help is received.  Learns how to challenge the more powerful gods.  Experiences that Circe will need to protect Circe’s child from a powerful god who wants to kill the child. 

                     

Caveats?

This is a retelling of popular Greco-Roman myths.  Those who know the myths can have different reactions to this story.  Knowledge of the myths would enable a reader to better understand the politics and social structure of the gods.  But there can also be dissidence between what the reader expects of the myths, and the represented contrast.

 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?  Why do people read this book?
•What are some limitations of the book?
•To whom would you suggest this book?
•What are nymphs?
•What was Helios’s presumed natural order? 
•How did Helios treat astronomers?
•What do gods love? 
•What did the gods think of mortals? 
•What did Circe think of humans? 
•Who is Circe? 
•What did Circe’s relatives think of Circe? 
•How can Circe’s childhood be described? 
•Why did Circe take Aeëtes?
•What did Prometheus do and what was the outcome?
•What did Circe think of Prometheus?  
•How does Titans and Olympians treat each other? 
•What is a Fury? 
•Can gods be hurt? 
•Who is Daedalus? 
•What is the great chain of fear?
•How did Glaucos react to Circe?
•What became of Glaucos? 
•What happened to Glaucos when Glaucos gained power?
•Who is Tethys and what did Circe ask of Tethys?
•How did Circe discover witchcraft? 
•How did Circe use power initially?  How did Circe’s use of power change? 
•Why is Scylla?  What does Scylla become? 
•How is witchcraft revealed to the gods? 
•Who are the original witches and magicians? 
•How does sorcery/witchcraft work? 
•What is Circe’s specialty in witchcraft? 
•What is Circe’s punishment for witchcraft? 
•How did Circe react to being on the island of Aiaia? 
•Who does Circe summon?
•Who is Hermes?
•How did Cicre and Hermes treat each other? 
•Who can enter and leave the island of Aiaia? 
•Who provides better offerings to the gods? 
•What is moly? 
•What happened to Pasiphaë? 
•How did the minotaur came to be? 
•What does Pasiphaë have on Daedalus?
•What did Daedalus give to Circe? 
•How do gods prove their worth? 
•How do mortals gain fame? 
•What are children worth? 
•What happened to Ariadne? 
•Who is Medea and what happened to Medea?
•What did Jason do? 
•How does Circe feel being on the island of Aiaia?  How does Circe deal with the loneliness and company? 
•Why do gods send their daughters to Aiaia?
•How did Odysseus and Circe treat each other?
•How did Athena treat Odysseus? 
•What happened during the Trojan War?
•How did Apollo share the prophecy? 
•Who did not want Circe child born? 
•How did Circe deal with Athena when Telegonus was born? 
•What stories did Circe tell Telegonus of Odysseus? 
•What does Telegonus want to do?
•How does Circe find a way to protect Telegonus and from what?
•Who is the Great lord of the deep? 
•What is Trygon’s power?
•What happened when Odysseus returned to Ithica?
•Why does Telemachus and Penelope go to Aiaia?
•What is the option Athena gives to Telemachus?  What is the outcome of the offer? 
•How does Circe end the exile? 
•What was the outcome of the confrontation between Circe and Scylla after exile’s end?
•What choice does Circe make after exile? 


Book Details
Edition:                   First ebook edition
Publisher:               Little, Brown and Company [Hachette Book Group]
Edition ISBN:         9780316556330
Pages to read:          335
Publication:             2020
1st Edition:              2018
Format:                    eBook 

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall          5






Thursday, April 4, 2024

Review of Japan Unbound: A Volatile Nation's Quest for Pride and Purpose by John Nathan

This book review was written by Eugene Kernes   

Book can be found in: 
Intriguing Connections = 1) Get To Know The Peoples Of The World (Japan), 


Watch Short Review

Excerpts

“The challenge was not only understanding European political and social institutions and the worldviews they reflected, but adapting them to fit the contours of Japanese society.  Establishing an authentic sense of national self and purpose in the modern world required the merging of two disparate and often irreconcilable cultures, one native, inherent, grounded in history, the other founded on concepts such as individualism and intractably foreign.  This exercise in cultural synthesis continues to tax and trouble the Japanese imagination.” – John Nathan, Introduction, Page 8

“The pressure was intense, but diligence and high achievement paid off: graduation from a preferred college guaranteed a fast-track job in government or industry, and lifetime employment.  School was a ticket to a successful life; teachers were trusted and respected.  |  But by the early 1980s, as the postcollege job market constricted, students began to show signs of stress.” – John Nathan, Chapter 1: Monsters in the House: Japan’s Bewildered Children, Page 32

“The fact remained, in a society that valorized individualism, that many people were not content to work for others: alienation, and the consequent loss of productivity, were inchoate in the moment of hiring.  The Japanese never resented sacrificing individuality in the interest of the group; on the contrary, discovering one’s place in a vertically integrated group, belonging harmoniously, was the basis for gratification and, beyond that, self-certainty.” – John Nathan, Chapter 3: The Culture of Arithmetic, Pages 72-73


Review

Is This An Overview?

Japan has been influenced by various cultures.  Cultures with different values, which challenged their fusion.  Tension formed between perceived unique traditional values, and the alternative values that are often foreign.  Threatening Japanese identity, their sense of self.  A cultural change that effects how people live.  Changing how people behave, find meaning, and find belonging within school, family, work, society, and politics. 

 

A society in which people tend to be willing to defer to the community.  People found belonging being part of the community, but communities are becoming isolating experiences.  The changing family structure and the traumatic school experiences, prevent people from building friendships and developing communication skills.  School and working hard used to provide people with an appropriate work and rewards, but the state of the economy led to a loss of jobs, a lack of potential reward to look forward to.  Various people are seeking differing ways to resolve the economic and social challenges facing Japan.

 

Caveats?

This book provides an introduction to the changing society in the late 20th century.  For a deeper political, cultural, and historic understanding of Japan would require more research.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?  Why do people read this book?
•What are some limitations of the book?
•To whom would you suggest this book?
•How has Japanese culture been influenced by other cultures?
•How is Japanese identity threatened?
•What are Japanese values?
•What did people expect from their work?
•How does Japan use language?
•How unique is Japan?
•Can Japanese culture be understood by outsiders? 
•What is the trend in juvenile crime? 
•What did people expect from school?
•What is happening inside the classrooms? 
•How are teachers effected by their jobs? 
•What is the extended family?
•How did people get married? 
•What do the Japanese think of entrepreneurs? 
•What kind of information did the Japanese want in textbooks?
•Who is Yasuo Tanaka?
•Who is Shintaro Ishihara?


Book Details
Publisher:               Houghton Mifflin Company
Edition ISBN:         0618138943
Pages to read:          253
Publication:             2004
1st Edition:              2004
Format:                    Hardcover 

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    3
Content          3
Overall          2






Thursday, March 28, 2024

Review of The Origin of Wealth: The Radical Remaking of Economics and What it Means for Business and Society by Eric D. Beinhocker

This book review was written by Eugene Kernes   

Book can be found in: 
Genre = Economics
Book Club Event = Book List (09/07/2024)


Watch Short Review

Excerpts

“Evolution creates designs, or more appropriately, discovers designs, through a process of trial and error.  A variety of candidate designs are created and tried out in the environment; designs that are successful are retained, replicated, and built upon, while those that are unsuccessful are discarded.  Through rejection, the process creates designs that are fit for their particular purpose and environment.  If the conditions are right, competition between designs for finite resources drives the emergence of greater structure and complexity over time, as evolution builds on the successes of the past to create novel designs for the future.” – Eric D. Beinhocker, Chapter 1: The Question, Page 31

“Put simply, large organizations inherently have more attractive opportunities before them than small organizations do (the large can theoretically do everything the small can do, plus more.)  But reaching those future opportunities involves trade-offs, and the more densely connected the organizational network, the more painful those trade-offs will be.  The politics of organizations are such that local pain in particular groups or departments is often sufficient to prevent the organization from moving to a new state, even if that state is more globally fit.” – Eric D. Beinhocker, Chapter 7: Networks, Page 180

“All competitive advantage is temporary.  Some advantages last longer than others, but all sources of advantage have a finite shelf life.  While this may sound like a truism, the observation is often forgotten in the never-ending quest for “excellent” companies that build sustainable competitive advantages and allegedly outperform their industry peers year after year.” – Eric D. Beinhocker, Chapter, Page 363


Review

Is This An Overview?

Wealth is an emergent property that evolved through people’s cooperation.  Cooperating for rewards, for mutual benefits.  Society enables synergy between people, differences within people, to create non-zero-sum outcomes.  Wealth that is enhanced by the productivity of labor, through specialization created by division of labor.  Cooperation made possible by various social technologies, which are the rules people abide by. 

Wealth is contained in knowledge, for knowledge enables people to transform resources into value.  Originating and improving through the process of evolution.  A method of competing to survive that filters out errors and enables the successful competitors to share their traits.  There is no best strategy for survival, no sustainable competitive advantage.  Any competitive advantage is temporary.  Survival itself is success.  Competition allocates finite resources, with markets being better due to their ability to innovate in disequilibrium.

 

How Complex Is Cooperation?

Evolutionary successful strategy of cooperation builds on past methods.  Innovate based on what was, but innovations have diminishing returns.  To keep high returns, more innovation is needed.  It might be impossible to predict the changes that evolution enabled, but societies can be designed better.

The collective has emergent properties.  Properties that do not exist within the individual.  Emergent properties such as complexity.  Enabling systems that are dynamic and nonlinear.  Systems that have self-reinforcing cycles of positive feedback, and self-regulating cycles of negative feedback. 

Cooperation can have a network effect, in which products that garner more users based on the number of users the system has.  Networks can provide a lot of value, but they can have consequences.  Networks can become too complicated.  Creating a complexity catastrophe.  When the networks grow too much, a negative change somewhere has drastic effects on various other parts.  Networks create interdependencies that have conflicting constraints, that create gridlock.  Local pain in change can prevent change in the whole system even if the change would improve the whole system.  Hierarchy can enable a better flow of information, to enable complexity along with the interdependencies.  But hierarchies have their own informational problems, such as information degrading.

 

How Has Economics Changed?  Or Did Not Change?  How To Simplify?

Physics was imported into economics which gave economics mathematical precision, at the cost of realism.  For some, it did not matter that the assumptions were not realistic, as long as they made correct predictions.  That the system acted ‘as if’ the assumptions were correct.  But, the purpose of science is explanations, not predictions.  The explanation and conclusion need to be tested.  Economics took ideas from physics, but while physics kept changing, economics did not.  Physics went from deterministic to dynamic and indeterminate.

Various economic ideas were wrong because economists were using science appropriately.  Assumptions are meant to simplify, but not contradict reality.  Economists used assumptions inappropriately by taking them to an extreme, that contradicted reality.  But there has been improvement, by enabling more realistic assumptions such as through the satisficing rather than making perfectly rational decisions.

 

Caveats?

Evolution is an integral concept to explain wealth, cooperation, and complexity.  Evolution is considered to provide beneficial change by error correcting problems.  The problem is that evolution does not provide only benefits, but also consequences.  Evolution can enable traits that are better for the individual at the expense of the system, at the expense of cooperative ventures.

While the author critiques various economic ideas, and referenced them as having been more static, there are also references to how the ideas have changed, improved, and were integrated within various fields.  The author provides various updated ways that economics has improved, has evolved. 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?  Why do people read this book?
•What are some limitations of the book?
•To whom would you suggest this book?
•What is wealth?
•What are emergent properties?
•By what design? 
•How does evolution effect society?
•How was the idea of evolution effected by economics? 
•How can the use of science and evolution corrupt economic understanding? 
•Why do people cooperate?
•What are network effects?
•How does hierarchy effect information? 
•How to compete?
•How has economics changed or stayed the same?
•What did economics use from physics? 
•What ideas of Adam Smith are effective?
•What is the law of diminishing marginal utility? 
•What is the Pareto optimal equilibrium? 
•How did Neoclassical paradigm gain acceptance?  
•What kind of model is needed to understand human behavior?
•What effect did behavior economics have?
•How does change effect equilibrium economics?
•What is an evolutionary stable strategy? 
•How did physical technology evolve? 
•Why does innovation have an S-Curve? 
•What are the conditions for economic value? 
•What happened to the British East India Company? 
•What is the Red Queen race? 
•Why do firms exist? 
•What kind of culture should a company have? 
•What is the purpose of a model?  
•What kind of wealth exists?

Book Details
Alternative Title:    The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics
Edition:                   First eBook Edition
Publisher:               Harvard Business Publishing
Edition ISBN:         9781633695979
Pages to read:          494
Publication:             2017
1st Edition:              2016
Format:                    eBook 

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    4
Content          4
Overall          3






Saturday, March 23, 2024

Review of War Is a Force that Gives Us Meaning by Chris Hedges

This book review was written by Eugene Kernes   

Book can be found in: 
Book Club Event = Book List (09/28/2024)
Intriguing Connections = 1) War, 2) Why Conflict Occurs And How To Resolve Them?,  


Watch Short Review

Excerpts

“War makes the world understandable, a black and white tableau of them and us.  It suspends thought, especially self-critical thought.  All bow before the supreme effort.  We are one.  Most of us willingly accept war as long as we can fold it into a belief system that paints the ensuing suffering as necessary for a higher good, for human beings seek not only happiness but also meaning.  And tragically war is sometimes the most powerful way in human society to achieve meaning.” – Chris Hedges, Introduction, Page 10

“The imagined heroism, the vision of a dash to rescue a wounded comrade, the clear lines we thought were drawn in battle, the images we have of our own reaction under gunfire, usually wilt in combat.  This is a sober and unsettling realization.  We may not be who we thought we would be.  One of the most difficult realizations of war is how deeply we betray ourselves, how far we are from the image of gallantry and courage we desire, how instinctual and primordial fear is.  We do not meditate on action.  Our movements are usually motivated by a numbing and overpowering desire for safety.  And yet there are heroes, those who somehow rise above it all, maybe only once, to expose themselves to risk to save their comrades.  I have seen such soldiers.  I nearly always found them afterwards to be embarrassed about what they did, unable to explain it, reticent to talk.  Many are not sure they could do it again.” – Chris Hedges, Chapter 1: The Myth Of War, Page 39

“States at war silence their own authentic and humane culture.  When this destruction is well advanced they find the lack of critical and moral restraint useful in the campaign to exterminate the culture of their opponents.  By destroying authentic culture – that which allows us to question and examine ourselves and our society – the state erodes the moral fabric.  It is replaced with a warped version of reality.  The enemy is dehumanized; the universe starkly divided between the forces of light and the forces of darkness.  The cause is celebrated, often in overt religious forms, as a manifestation of divine or historical will.  All is dedicated to promoting and glorifying the myth, the nation, the cause.” – Chris Hedges, Chapter 3: The Destruction Of Culture, Page 63


Review

Is This An Overview?

To prevent a war that results in self-obliteration, requires an understanding of what war provides.  How war functions and changes behavior.  War is a destructive act, but tragically also has value.  War can become an addition, like any other.  War provides excitement, power, purpose, and meaning.  War removes the trivia, the shallowness of life.  Allows people to rise above the divisiveness.  War makes reality more understandable, by simplifying reality.  A clear dividing line is made between us and them.  Makes people ready to pursue suffering for a higher good.  Enables people to do evil, that is difficult to reconcile with after the war. 

War is perpetuated by myths, news, entertainment, and history.  Myths twist all information to serve the myth.  The myths are meant to separate people, to prevent communication with the opposition.  Myths invoke a threat to community’s sacred values, with the community perceived as the victims who are justified in their violent reciprocation.  With the myths, the opposition is demonized, with their values inverted to justify cruelty.  Wars that lose their mythic stature, are doomed to fail.  Without the myths, war becomes recognized as organized murder. 

 

By What Cause?

The cause needs to be just to fight.  Wars are difficult without an appropriate cause.  Which is why states take tremendous time and effort to promote their cause.  At war, the state becomes the guide for moral righteousness.  To try to expose the myth, would mean removal from the group.  Reporters provide legitimizing support for the for the state. 

Death of innocent ignite conflicts.  The innocent builds the cause.  Each group perceives themselves as victims.  Sharing and distorting the excess of others.  Victimhood is cultivated by showing the injustice carried out against their group.  Atrocities are justified by the atrocities of the opposition.

The dead do not have equal value.  The dead of others mean little, while the dead of supported group matter.  The opposition lacks humanity for killing, but the killing done by the supported group is praised.  War turns people into killers.  For want of power, or under peer pressure.  Martyrs provide a way to prevent arguments for compromise or tolerance.  The dead speak and ask for revenge.

 

Who To Silence?

The dissidents to conflict are the earliest to be silenced, for they are the most dangerous, as they provide an alternative way to think.  The opposition is not silenced, for they enable the sought after conflict.  Most people self-censor their views to not be branded as outsiders to their community.  Unwilling to help neighbors to prevent being attacked themselves. 

States destroy their own culture to prevent the people from finding critical and moral restraint.  Without the restraint, states are more effective in their attack against the opposition.  Replacing authentic culture with a warped reality.  Generating a conflict between good and evil.  To glorify the myth.  Seeing the humanity of the enemy makes for ineffective soldiers.  Therefore states obliterate self-awareness and self-criticism.  War removes individual consciousness and responsibility, in favor of communal effort.

The problem with silence, is that the silence of past atrocities, enables further atrocities.  War does not free people from ethics of responsibility.  But at times, immoral behavior needs to be reciprocated with less immoral behavior. 

The press sees itself as part of the war effort.  War is perpetuated by the news, as wars garner more views.  The press is being shown only what the military wants them to see.  The press share only what the state wants people to see.  The press show little of reality.  Reporting what makes people feel better about themselves. 

 

Is There A Difference Between How War Is Portrayed And Actual War?

Real conflict is very different than what is portrayed by the entertainment industry.  Most people do not behave the way they expected to in actual combat.  Imagined heroism is quick to fall apart.  Individuals betray themselves, for want of safety.  To avoid the primordial fear.  There are few heroes, who usually do not support what they did.  Combat humiliates.  Words used to inspire, become hollow and repugnant.

 

Caveats?

This book covers many sensitive topics, sensitive wars, sensitive traumas.  A diverse history is provided to support the claims.  But the history is limited.  To understand the history of the various conflicts would require more research.


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?  Why do people read this book?
•What are some limitations of the book?
•To whom would you suggest this book?
•How to understand war?
•How does war function?
•How does war change behavior?
•What does war provide?
•How does war change how reality is perceived?
•What is the effect of myths?
•Why do people do evil and commit atrocities during war?
•By what cause do wars start?
•How are wars perpetuated?
•Who are the victims?
•Who are the innocent?
•How do states justify war? 
•What efforts do states take to justify war?
•What do reporters report?
•How does the news effect war?
•How do people take death?
•Who is silenced in war?
•How is culture effected in war?
•How do people behave in actual combat?
•How does the entertainment industry make war look like? 
•What happened to language during conflict? 
•How does war effect sex? 
•Can love be found in wartime?
•What happened to the Armenians? 


Book Details
Edition:                   First Anchor Books Edition
Publisher:               Anchor Books [Random House]
Edition ISBN:         9781400034635
Pages to read:          185
Publication:             2003
1st Edition:              2002
Format:                    Paperback

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall          5