Saturday, February 27, 2021

Review of The Body: A Guide for Occupants by Bill Bryson

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Science, Health Resource

Short Description


Elaborate Description

The human body is a marvel of a paradox.  Inanimate matter that has no conscious, creates miracles of life such as animated humans.  Humans are both extremely fragile and extremely resilient.  With so many opportunities and things which can kill a human, humans still survive.  Healthy living may increase the chances of longer life but it does not guarantee an escape from potential dangers.  What we know about what makes the human body is very little in comparison to how much we do not know.  Problem is not just the complexity of life but also a lack of research and funding into the many things that make a human body go.  

Although each human share 99% of DNA, people are still different.  From the way each human smells odors and tastes food, to the different immunity systems.  Each person has many different microbes of which many have never been registered.  Bacteria evolve to resist antibiotics, with the antibiotics killing good bacteria as well.  Because of antibiotics, people have less diverse microbes.  Even tears have antimicrobial chemicals which fight pathogens.  Part of the reason why people get fevers is that heat kills off pathogens, but people do not stay hot because it would require too much energy.  Everyone’s immune system is different and responds to a host of factors such as state of mind and toxins.  Although it requires endless work to protect humans from limitless things, the error rate for the immune system is really low.  Sometimes the immune system does attack innocent cells.  

Everything we know about the world comes from an organ that has never seem the world.  The brain creates what is seen by interpreting electrical signals.  Seeing is not as important as making sense from what is seen.  Curiously, nonmammalian creatures have more color acuity so live in a visually richer world.  

Fears of death have changed from communicable diseases to other maladies.  Lifestyle is the major cause of the problems humans have.  Evolution gave us bodies for a different purpose. As more people live to old age, problems that primarily occur at old age have become more common.  Food has become abundant which causes a arise in weight.  Weight puts more pressure on the bones which cause suffering over time.  Nutrition is the reason why puberty is earlier now than before.  Overfed but nutritionally deficient as many of the things humans eat are not the things humans need.

Bryson tells of what is known about the human body, and all the things that science still can not explain about it.  Along the way the stories and history behind discoveries and the personalities responsible are told.  Besides the complexity of trying to identify what each microbe and hormone does, they may do multiple things in the body.  Medications are not panacea and can have problems when used in combination with other medication.  Doctors do not always have the best interest of the patient as they are influenced by profit making via getting paid by drug companies.  

This book is eloquently written but there are a few caveats to this book.  Caveat 1: Each chapter contains many different things about something that makes up a human, which makes it hard for those unfamiliar with the topics.  Caveat 2: Although expressing complexity does a wonderful job at showing what is missing, sometimes Byrson does not discuss some methods or ideas in depth either because they are political as there is no consensus, or because there was not enough space, or maybe the topic is just that complicated.    


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•How do the elemental components make humans?
•How did humans evolve into the animals know called humans?
•Why are people different? 
•What does skin do for the human body?
•Why do mammals have hair?
•What do microbes do?
•Who do viruses impact?
•How do antibiotics impact people?
•How does the brain perceive the world? 
•Why do we have tears?
•How does smell work?
•What is taste? 
•How does life style impact health?
•Why is puberty earlier now than before?
•How does the body use energy?
•How do diseases become viable? 
•What is cancer?
•Why does the immune system attack innocent cells?
•What does the immune system react do?
•How do people get better from illnesses?
•How much do we know about the human body?
•What is the efficacy of drugs?
•Why not study humans?
•How do doctors treat their patients? 

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  9780385539319
Pages to read:   391
Publication:     2020
1st Edition:      2019
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall           5

Monday, February 22, 2021

Review of Gang of Five: Leaders at the Center of the Conservative Crusade by Nina J. Easton

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Politics

Short Description


Elaborate Description

This book comprised of five biographies with the people under observation being political leaders at the end of the 20th century.  Bill Kristol, Ralph Reed, Grover Norquist, David McIntosh, and Clint Bolick histories and changes are expressed in this book.  From how they performed in school, to how culture shaped their views, what is clear is that they wanted to be in politics.  Easton provides a complicated story of ideological reversals and how their views shaped what they brought into the political arena. Their ideology stemmed from defending America from threats, of which communism was a big one at the time.  The various ways politicians get their message across is expressed in the book, like polarizing views in response to threats and opposition.  

This book provides a timely political history for when it was written, but not for a history book read years later.  Although topics such as religions role in politics, abortion, gay rights, and sex scandals are still well know topics, this book does not really explain their roles in politics overall.  It can also be confusing keeping track of which person had certain ideas and how those ideas relate to their roles in politics, unless the reader is familiar with the people.  It appears the book is trying to explain an important topic but needs more information to succeed.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•How did each politician shape politics?
•What early experiences shaped each of the politician’s views?
•Why did they go into politics?
•What tools did the politicians use to get their message across?

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  0684838990
Pages to read:   392
Publication:     2000
1st Edition:      2000
Format:           Hardcover

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    3
Content          2
Overall           2

Friday, February 12, 2021

Review of The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York by Robert A. Caro

This review is written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = History


Short Description


Elaborate Description

A story of how an idealist who fought corruption became one of the most corrupting influences in New York history.  Having earned the friendship of a governor, Robert Moses took on the post of park development in Long Island.  A post with little power that over time turned into controlling construction on parks all over New York, a monopoly in transportation, and housing development projects.  Controlling massive construction works and heavily influencing the media, turned him into a power broker.  Those who supported him gained wealth.  Those who attempted to slow him down paid a heavy price.  It was public support that enabled him to gain access to power, and it would be public disapproval that would take it away.  With his influence and inability to listen to the advice of others, Robert Moses shaped so many areas in New York that his influenced projects are ubiquitous.  

Initially Moses was an idealist.  Admiring a rigid class differentiation, making it near impossible for lower division to rise in stature.  Class associated with university training, which was tied to wealth.  Was part of a team which focused on proving government official corruption.  During a civil service tenure, he wanted city jobs and promotions to be determined by merit and devised a system to measure performance.  Only the human element of the measurement kept it from perfection.  Under the system, many of the workers under the then corrupt payment system would either not have jobs or have lowered income.  Corrupt Tammany officials reduced the threat that the reorganization would have had.  Filing the reorganized paper work was so complicated that it eventually broke down.  Idealism was not enough to get Moses what he wanted, so he started to amass power.  Power to transform his dreams into reality.  It was not brilliance or logic that built public projects, but power.  Once Moses had acquired a bit of power, he wanted more and more power.  Becoming dependent on its intoxicating effects.   

Moses met Al Smith from an introduction by trusted friend Belle Moskowitz.  Under Moskowitz’ tutelage, Moses learned practical means of making his dreams reality.  Becoming scornful of those who like his former attitude, stuck to ideals and principles rather than compromise.  Al Smith was the only governor who Robert Moses respected and was willing to listen to. From Smith, Moses learned the importance of the media and how to manipulate the media to meet his ends without telling them anything more.  All the while Robert Moses became an expert bill drafter who was able to weave power from words while avoiding concealing the bill’s real content.  

Accepting the posting of Long Island State Park Commission which was acceptable to Moses’s dreams of grand public works.  Moses wrote legislature to keep him in that position and enabled legal powers which would allow him to take land away as needed.  With this power, Moses removed people from Long Island to get parks and roads built.  Moses set a price for the land and would not even consider alternatives.  A few people fought Moses on legal grounds whose rights were confirmed as Moses’s actions were illegal, but Moses made himself the ally of the people fighting the rich who were preventing public construction.  Even reasonably arbitrary power was not enough, so his actions went beyond the law.  Fighting Moses on legal grounds was futile because even the rich did not have the financial support the state did.  Judges who ruled against Moses were publicly attacked as Moses claimed that it was these judges who closed public parks.  It did not matter what means were used in obtaining the land and funding the construction projects as what mattered to the public was the end result, the expected parks.  

After building the Long Island parks, Moses went to limiting access to them.  Limited access to the parks by instituting parking fees which went against free parks, and made sure that buses could not go to the parks by building bridges low.  The fee and lack of bus transportation prevented poor people coming to the parks.  The low bridges would also cost a lot to increase their elevations to allow bus, of which there were a lot of low elevated bridges.   

Manipulating the media was a common way for Robert Moses to get what he wanted.  Finding information on everyone and blackmailing them into accepting his views or releasing the information.  It did not matter whatever the information was, or whether it was about the individual or a relative’s action a long time ago, or even if the information was genuine, Moses would use his public relation machinery to get his way.  Ending many careers and waging vendettas against those who attempted to disagree with Moses.

Robert Moses himself only revealed to the press what he wanted the press to know, and no other piece of information.  Building an empire on lies meant that he needed to protect those lies.  Claiming that public authorities were outside political influence, and would cost the taxpayers nothing.  These claims were believed because public opinion was on his side, and because the authority kept information sealed, no facts could test the claims.  Costing taxpayers money that it could hardly pay off, while reducing the tax revenue.  

Although Robert Moses never gave much credit to his family, he owed them much.  Intellectually nurtured and financially provided by his mother, Bella Moses.  As the initial jobs taken by Robert Moses were either voluntary or low pay, Bella provided him with upkeep income.  More money was given when Robert’s wife Mary was pregnant with their first daughter Barbara.  Bella Moses would finance her son’s early career and projects.  

Using the media as support for illegal and unethical actions was not the only lessons Moses learned from the Long Island Park Commission that were useful, it was also financing.  Once a project was approved, it was unlikely the more money would be denied.  Underestimating the costs of the projects, Moses got many projects approved with their true costs being revealed later.  Denying the additional money would mean that the initial money was wasted.  Even though the politicians were misled by the financing, they could not claim that they were misled as that would indicate that they did not investigate the project before approval of the funds.  There was an endless supply of blackmail that Moses could use to get the needed funding after the initial funds were provided and the project started.  Even greater effort to start projects was borne by the time that Smith had left as governor, as the governors support was needed for the projects.

Robert Moses pushed employees to work hard, but Moses worked harder still.  Tried to work almost every hour and day.  Making sure that problems were handled every day in the morning and did not pile up.  The employees were too afraid to leave before Moses.  Those around Moses initially were brilliant people who were able to disagree with Moses.  Over time, Moses became unwilling to hear his staff’s suggestions.  Employees rewards were not just money and power, but loyalty from Moses as he would defend them should the need arise.  Nevertheless, Moses was very abusive to his officials.

As governor, Roosevelt tried to prevent Moses from getting what Moses wanted.  But Moses power increased during Roosevelt’s tenure.  Part of the reason why Roosevelt used Moses was because Moses knew the administrative machinery better than anyone, while Roosevelt was unprepared for it.  The reason why Roosevelt gave Moses power was because Moses’s accomplishment.  Moses also antagonized the opposition, which left the elected officials unscathed.

In order to get more power, Moses wanted to become mayor.  But Moses did not appreciate the press.  Not willing to talk to the people.  Attacked the opposition.  Would not explain his ideas, and would not listen to the other opinions.  Moses projects were an important issue, but they were voting for a public candidate, a person, whom people did not like.  When mayor Impy was elected, Moses would get practically free reign as Impy relied on Moses to run the administration.  Moses was welcoming with advice and suggestions which Impy accepted.  Moses influence was not seen, but the city felt it.  Impy was not reelected due to Moses’s policies.  The public having a choice, would not have chosen Moses.  

The empire that Moses built was like a sovereign state, was hidden from the public.  Holding state and city posts made Moses near impossible to control by the highest elected officials.  Public authorities usually had a lifespan which depended on repaying their debts, which afterwards, the projects would go to the city.  Moses made his Triborough Bridge Authority to be perpetual by allowing refunding bonds, which basically means to never repay the debts.  To prevent retiring bonds, revenues would also be spent on new public works which would provide for immense wealth.  Changed graft into legally derived incomes form public works project.  Honest graft which included premiums, commissions, and retainers.  Large sums of money went into paying for entertainment and incomes of those who supported him.    Bent the democratic process of the city to support his view of what New York should look like.  Although money wise everything was legal, power wise Moses was corrupt.  Using money to achieve power.  Accepting a favor from Moses meant being indebted to him forever.  

Moses held many city posts which were very complimentary.  From Long Island State Park Commission, he also became State Park Commission which was a source of power for nearly four decades.  Holding posts such as Park Commissioner and Construction Coordinator in which he proposed project, while holding the post of Planning Commission which decided the merits of the projects.   For seven years, any public project required Robert Moses to approve.  Moses got even more power when he became the distributor of federal funding.  As Moses controlled the funding allocations, he was able to control what was built and what was not.  

Once Moses got a bit of power, he was going to get his way.  Dissension became taboo around Moses.  Even trying not to cooperate was impossible as that would mean never finding work.  As Moses became powerful, he compromised with others who held power rather than fight them.  Publicly shaming millionaires who prevented his projects, privately Moses colluded with them.  Those who had no power were disregarded.  

Moses applied the same architectural principals of Long Island parks to the rest of New York, which would prove disastrous.  While Long Island was sporadically populated and parks could be built where there were no people, the urban networks in the city had lots of people.  To build parks, the people would need to be evicted and communities destroyed. The human factor would not be added to Moses’s city park projects.  The parks would be built for middle class, neglecting the poor and especially people of color.  

Moses built highways and bridges to ease congested but the new access roads were soon congested with more cars overall.  The solution proposed to Moses was to increase mass transportation such as buses and trains, but Moses denied the ideas.  Building a city for cars rather than people.  Bridges would be built without support for trains.  Before the bridges were built, it would not require that much more funding to add train accessibility, but after being built it was be very costly to make bridges train accessible.  Moses would not budge on mass transportation.  To built roads, Moses tore down neighborhoods even when there were better alternatives to road locations, but that would require time and discussion which Moses did not want permit because he did not want anything to slow him down.  Rather than building or repairing the badly needed medical or education facilities, roads were built.  New York was in desperate need of housing but Robert Moses, even while building more housing that any other public official, did not built enough housing.  Under slum clearance programs, he created as many new slums as he cleared old slums.  Most people hated the housing built.

What brought Moses down was Moses himself.  Wanted to create a parking lot on a park that was used by people who had access to lawyers and the media.  The protesters were colluding with each other.  Moses started to appear as the anti-public politician and pro-rich.  The public used to support him but not anymore.  Because of the construction attempt, he could no longer be seen as anti-rich.  What is more important is because of the media attention on his actions, Moses was forced to allow reporters to go through his authority accounts.  Without public support, Moses lost posts and power.


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•How would you characterize Robert Moses’s legacy?
•In what way was Robert Moses idealistic?
•Did power corrupt Robert Moses?
•How did Robert Moses use the media?
•How did Robert Moses handle park construction?  What were the differences between Long Island park construction and city park construction?
•How receptive was Robert Moses to other people?
•Why did people do as Robert Moses wished? 
•How was Robert Moses work ethic?
•How did Robert Moses treat his employees?
•Why were the bill’s that Robert Moses drafted so effective?
•Who was Al Smith to Robert Moses?
•Even with governors and majors who opposed Robert Moses, why did Robert Moses power increase?
•What happened when Robert Moses wanted to become major?
•What happened to people who supported Robert Moses?  What happened to people who did not support Robert Moses?
•What measures did Robert Moses take to get his projects built?
•How did Robert Moses finance the projects?
•How did Robert Moses lose his power?
•How was the Triborough Bridge Authority like an empire? 
•Why did Robert Moses not want mass transportation? 
•To whom were the projected directed to?
•How were communities effected by Robert Moses constructions?
•What did Robert Moses think of unions? 
•How was Robert Moses’s familial relations?


Book Details
Edition ISBN:  9780394720241
Pages to read:   1162
Publication:     1975
1st Edition:      1974
Format:           Paperback

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall           5

Thursday, February 11, 2021

Review of Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development edited by Mushtaq H. Khan and Jomo K. S

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Economic Development
Intriguing Connections = Rent. Rent-Seeking! Lucre?

Short Description


Excerpts 
“In developing countries the rent-seeking can be more extensive, can include illegal forms and is more often damaging for growth.” – Mushtaq H. Khan and Jomo K. S., Introduction, Page 1

“Rents are ubiquitous and economies have to learn to live with them.  There are good rents, and the institution which promote them advance development in the presence of rent-seeking.  But there are also bad rents, promotion of which results in damaging rent-seeking.” – Mushtaq H. Khan and Jomo K. S., Introduction, Page 18

“These rents are inefficient only in terms of the irrelevant benchmark of general equilibrium, but in the real world such rents are efficient because they are necessary to make markets work and there is no feasible alternative.” – Mushtaq H. Khan, Introduction, Page 46

Quotes with permission from publisher

Elaborate Description

A rent is an income that is above the minimum acceptable income, usually above average income.  Rent and rent-seeking are normally perceived as being only inefficient, waste of resources, and bad for economic development.  Prompted by the 1997 Asian crisis, the authors of this book ask how rent and rent-seeking was able to sustain economic growth for a long time if they were all bad.  Certain types of rents and rent-seeking facilitate development.  The process of rent-seeking is composed not only of trying to obtain rents, but also maintaining the rents.  In order to work, rents do need to create favored income earners.  As rents are ubiquitous, countries have to learn to manage them. 

Rent is normally a reference to any income above the average.  Average relative to a competitive market.  Particularly, rent is an outcome where a person accepts an income that is higher than the minimum acceptable income. Rents can be legal or illegal.  Government allocations to specific firms are legal rents while brides are illegal.  As rents are above average income, those who get rents will try to maintained their rents.  In the rent-seeking process, the rentier will try to influence political and market outcomes to keep the rents.  Spending money on rent-seeking activities are not the only reason why rents are seen as inefficient, they also allocate income away from competitive actors and reduce social benefits.  

Facilitating good rents promote economic development while bad rents damage the economy.  The various types of rents include monopoly rents, nature resource rents, transfer rents, and Schumpeterian rents, learning rents, monitoring and management rents.  Although rents can generate positive outcomes, they do favor certain income earners over others.  Creating classes of income.  There are different ways in which private parties or government can create rents.  To sustain the rents, those rents need to be distributed to the compensate rent losers, and society.  

This book demonstrated that there is a big definitional crisis in rents.  The rent definition used can be used to make any income appear like rent.  Making rent ubiquitous reduces the meaning that rent has.  Another definition problem is that rent can be achieved with no business taking any action, as if more a random reason more customers make use of their products, that is rent. 

Another problem with this book is that the author makes the claim that economic development and rent are not supposed to be complimentary so that when rents promote economic development it is a paradox.  The problem with this view is that it means that rents can gained without wealth.  For rents to exist, wealth needs to be created in order to allocate income to different uses.  Rents are complimentary for economic development and can be sustained for a long time as rent seekers have an incentive to make sure that wealth is created to derive rents from it.  It is difficult to do, which is why rent-seeking is tenuous.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What are rents and what is rent-seeking?
•Why are rents and rent-seeking usually perceived as being negative?
•How can rents and rent-seeking support economic developments?
•Are rents and rent-seeking legal or illegal?
•Who can have rents?
•How are rents allocated?
•What types of rent are there?
•What are some rent-seeking activities?
•How can rent and rent-seeking be sustainable?

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  9780521788663
Pages to read:   323
Publication:     2009
1st Edition:      2000
Format:           Paperback

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    3
Content          3
Overall           2

Saturday, February 6, 2021

Review of Mayan Civilization: A History From Beginning to End by Henry Freeman

This review is written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = History, Empires

Short Description

Elaborate Description

Mayan culture is premised on a yearly cycle between destruction and creation which stems from maize production.  Mayan civilization is ancient but not well know because many of their records were destroyed by missionaries.  What is known is that many states rose and fell before the coming of Europeans.  Their use of the environment and politics doomed them.  Unsustainably used their ecology which prevented a stable nutrient supply.  Going from centralized controlled conflict, to state conquest, to destructive warfare.  Maya leaders continuously ignored problems within their society while trying to showcase their power and status.  

Maya had detailed historical records of their history but the majority of the records were destroyed by Spanish missionaries.  Many Maya images and books were defaced or burned by missionaries who perceived the works to be heretical, heathen.  The surviving records from political state clashes show their leaders describing their victory and reasons for the clash in ways they wanted themselves to be represented.  The intellectual history show mastery in math and astronomy which was used to chronicle events.  

As the Maya grew in population, they became more politically centralized.  Hierarchal social structure.  Politically ruled by chiefdoms whose chiefs were perceived to hold supernatural contracts or abilities.  The Maya people are generally perceived as having respect for nature, but the Maya have also caused environmental damage.  Part of the collapse of the Maya is in their overused of their environmental infrastructure.  Maya population contained many elites who continued to demand more from the population even with eroding environmental conditions.  

Although the Maya were seen as fractured independent states, they were seen as being peaceful with each other.  Further research showed that the fractioned Maya societies had frequent clashes.  The Mayan culture survived the collapse of centralized political system.  By the time Columbus reached the New World, the Maya were politically less centralized and had frequent warfare.  An attempt was made to unify Mayan factions to overcome the Europeans, but alliance attempt failed to rein in invaders.  In the process, the capital of Tenochtitlan was destroyed.


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Why did the Mayan civilization collapse?
•Why were Mayan records destroyed?
•How was the political system structured?
•Are the Mayan respectful of nature?  
•How did the Maya treat the environment?
•Describe the Mayan culture.  What influenced the culture?
•Why did many Mayan chiefdoms fall? 
•How did the Maya respond to the Europeans?


Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940153381046
Pages to read:   40
Publication:     2016
1st Edition:      2016
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          2
Overall           3

Friday, February 5, 2021

Review of Pirate Stories (Treasure Island, Peter and Wendy, Captain Blood) by Robert Louis Stevenson, J. M. Barre, Rafael Sabatini

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Novel, History

Short Description

Excerpts
“Mutiny it was plain, hung over us like a thundercloud.” – Robert Louis Stevenson, XIII: How My Shore Adventure Began, Page 79

“Peter never quite knew what twins were, and his band were not allowed to know anything he did not know” – J. M. Barre, V: The Island Come True, Page 243

“Peter Blood judged her- as we are all too prone to judge – upon insufficient knowledge.” – Rafael Sabatini, V: Arabella Bishop, Page 374

Elaborate Description
A collection of pirate stories. Fictional accounts of pirates which are a major source of influence on how we perceive the world of pirates. From their diverse characters to what makes them pirates. Each book provides

Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson:
A captain falls dead at an inn. Jim and his mother collect their due before the others do. When pirates come and take the rest of the captain’s treasure, they do not find the thing they were looking for. Jim already got it. Jim goes to his town doctor and magistrate to see what to do. What Jim finds is that he has a treasure map that the pirates wanted and will hunt him until they have it. The doctor and Jim set off on an adventure to find Flint’s treasure before the pirates get it. Boarding a ship to take them to the indicated island, the company finds that the crew are not what they appear. Jim and his company must survive a must survive a mutiny to find the treasure.

Peter and Wendy by J. M. Barre:
Neverland is a place that many children dream about but forget it as if the place was only a dream. Wendy, and her brothers, are able to travel to Neverland with the help of Peter Pan and Tinker Bell. Peter Pan is the captain of the lost boys, and Tinker Bell is a fairy. Wendy takes care of the boys while adventuring in Neverland. The thing about Neverland is that nobody grows up there. This is a story about learning to grown up.

Captain Blood by Rafael Sabatini:
The meaning of honor and justice are the lessons of this book. The drastic vicissitudes of fortune to be found in the realm of governance and pirates. For Peter Blood was a veteran of many wars but unjustly punished and sentenced to slavery. From slavery, he became a pirate captain whose sharp wit and cunning allowed him to garner respect and power. As will all pirates, many enemies stalk his path to regain their own honor. This is a book resembles the pirating world in their fortune, politics, and diverse characters.

Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
Treasure Island:
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Why did Jim go on an adventure to find the treasure?
•How does Jim navigate a mutiny?
•Is there a way to tell trustworthiness?
•Are pirates greedy?

Peter and Wendy:
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What are some strange things about Neverland?
•Who is Peter Pan?
•Why is Wendy acting as a mother to the lost boys?
•What are fairies? Describe them. 

Captain Blood
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Who is Peter Blood?
•What led blood into becoming a slave?
•Why did Blood turn to piracy? 
•How does Blood treat his crew?
•How do fellow pirates treat Blood?
•Are pirates honorable?
•How has the law treated Blood as a pirate? 
•Why was Tortuga hospitable to pirates? 


Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940162759300
Pages to read:   629
Publication:     2020
1st Edition:      1879 (Treasure Island), 1911 (Peter and Wendy), 1922 (Captain Blood)
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Collection
Readability    4
Content          2
Overall           3

Treasure Island
Readability    3
Content          1
Overall           2

Peter and Wendy
Readability    4
Content          1
Overall           3

Captain Blood
Readability    4
Content          3
Overall           4