Monday, January 31, 2022

Review of The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World by Alan Greenspan

Book can be found in:

Genre = Economics, Finance
Intriguing Connections = 1) Monetary Policy, A Leaver of the Economy

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Elaborate Description

Overview:

Alan Greenspan served as the Chair of the Federal Reserve from 1987 to 2006.  This book covers Greenspan’s early life, becoming an economist, intellectual influences, personal life, presidential advisor, and time during the Fed.  Along with views on policies and economic ideas.  Being challenged and learning how to improve an understanding of economics and of human beings.  Greenspan was an analyst but tasked with policies which had political aspects.  During the Fed, Greenspan was involved with trying to calm the markets after many crises occurs such as the Mexican peso crisis, Russian debt crisis, and the trouble with Long-Term Capital Management.   While trying to prevent other crises such as inflationary pressures, U.S. debt size, the tech bubble, and the housing bubble.  With Fed independence in question, Greenspan defended Fed independence from political maneuverings.  To Greenspan, world affairs seem to have to have gotten much more turbulent.


General Life:

From trying to understand Greenspan’s father’s book, to working at Townsend-Greenspan, Greenspan was an analyst.  Seeking how the abstract models were tied to the real world.  Filtering through various observations and facts to understand what has happened.  Seeking as much detail to facilitate an understanding of the behavior of a particular segment of the world.  Focusing on how the data was produced to create forecasts.  


Influenced by Ayn Rand who would consider any idea from anyone, and argue the idea on its merits.  Rand is well known for going against Communism, which Rand considered would collapse under its own corruption.  Championing capitalism as the ideal form of social organization.  Within the group that Ayn Rand hosted, Greenspan’s views were challenged.  Ayn Rand taught Greenspan to learn more about human values which broadened the way Greenspan thought about models thereafter.  Ayn Rand objectivism philosophy was too strict for Greenspan and created may contradictions.  


On The Federal Reserve:

Congress initiated protection of the Fed from political influence, but politics still tries to influence the Fed.  While the presidency is subject to a variety of short-term demands, the Fed tries to maintain long-term economic viability.  Economic policy from the Fed are very much subject to the political process.  


Greenspan dealt with many U.S. presidents, and saw their terrible sides that the public did not normally get to see.  The government would enact terrible policies, such as price controls, knowing full well that it would hurt the economy, but enact it anyway because businesses and consumers wanted.


The chair of the FOMC leads discussion about what policies in which everyone can participate and raise claims and concerns.  At one point, the recordings of the meetings were asked to be disclosed but that would have changed the content of the meetings.  They would become prepared speeches rather unfettered debate.


The Federal Reserve’s policies are made by the FOMC (Federal Open Market Committee.)  Which directs the Fed to either buy or sell treasury securities, or alternative financial assets.  Buying securities increased the money in the economy and reduces short-term interest rates.  While selling securities does the reverse, reduces the money in the economy and increases short-term interest rates.  With the FOMC operations, they can tailor how the economy performs, but the reaction of the market to the operations is often uncertain.  With inflationary pressures, the Fed slows the economy by making money more expensive to borrow.  The Fed tries not to abuse their power by not telling banks what to do, such as to or not to make loans.  Such power would damage the functioning of the market.


Monetary policy has changed in response to pressure.  From not indicating the direction of interest rates, to being transparent about operations.  Not disclosing the targeted interest rate changed kept markets uncertain, which caused them to have a buffer to either direction.  


Greenspan favors property rights because they protect against arbitrary seizure.  As regulator, there are three rules of thumb that Greenspan has which are: 1) Regulations that comes from a crisis need to be modified afterwards, 2) having several regulators causes them to keep each other in check, 3) regulations need to be revised or removed based on usefulness.


Thoughts on Economics 

Before well-developed markets, suppliers would not state the accuracy of their inventory as it would weaken bargaining power.  As markets gradually became better, suppliers became very willing to state what they had in their inventory.  Division of labor has become sophisticated as to make everyone dependent on interactions and exchange of goods and services.  Referencing that the way to cripple an economy is to target its economic infrastructure of payment systems.  Removing that would force business to rely on inefficient physical exchanges.  


The way people thought of debt has changed over time.  There was a time when the U.S. president felt ashamed for a deficit, and even apologized for having a deficit.  An argument that Greenspan has made for a very long time was to reduce the debt.  Debt limits the response any government can make.  During a recession, it limits the ability of a government to address the economic problem.  During 1999-2000, the government ran a surplus, as in spent less than it was taking in via taxes.  There were questions about Feb operations if Treasury securities could not be used.  


Keynesian policies became popular in response to the Great Depression, but declined during the 1970s with the inability to deal stagflation.  In an economic contraction, Keynes argued that government could create demand which would enable increased economic activity. 


Within a centrally planned economy, production and distribution are determined by instruction.  What resources are to be given, what is to be produced, and to whom the product is for are all determined.  Along with predetermined wages and employment.  The consumer has no option to but to be a passive recipient of whatever is to be produced.  There is no impetus to develop the economy.  


The Cold War was a contest about different views of economic organization, not just ideologies.  For many years the Soviet Union and the U.S. appeared evenly matched.  The problem is that Soviet Union did not capture the dynamism of economies, that production shifts faster than could be anticipated.  


A natural experiment was done using Germany after WWII.  Starting with the same culture, history, and values but after the split between East and West Germany, the regions became vastly different.  


Caveats?

The book does not provide much information about most opposing views other than that there were opposing views.  Without the reasons for the opposing views, and with the reasons for the views held, the book creates a bias in which the author’s views appears more right than they might actually have been.  


As this book follows many major events, the events are not always given a background other than that there was a crisis that needed to be managed.  Some of these events had Fed intervention and have become precedents for future actions.  There seems to be a lack of recognition that some actions of the past, created forthcoming problems.  The Fed seems to be the victim within the crises, and the institution that continued to prevent further escalation.  


There is a distinct lack of problems that the Fed has caused.  This would have been important to note in the book, as it would have indicated areas of governance that need adjusting, and a guide on how to avoid doing the same mistakes.  

Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Who is Alan Greenspan?
•Who influenced Greenspan?
•Who was Ayn Rand? 
•What economic ideas does Greenspan favor? 
•What are the benefits and disadvantages of communism and capitalism?
•What did Greenspan do before the Federal Reserve? 
•How did Greenspan advise presidents?
•What are Greenspan thoughts on political leaders?
•What is the purpose of the Federal Reserve? 
•What did Greenspan do while Chair of the Fed?
•How did Greenspan handle the various crises?
•Why is the Federal Reserve’s independence threatened? 
•What is the FOMC?
•How does the Federal Reserve regulate the economy? 
•How did the Federal Reserve change overtime?
•What dd Greenspan think was in store for some the world nations? 
•What are property rights?
•What is the division of labor? 
•How does debt affect the economy? 
•What are Keynesian policies? 
•What are some problems that the book has? 

Book Details

Edition ISBN:  9780143114161
Pages to read:   532
Publication:     2008
1st Edition:      2007
Format:            Paperback

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          4
Overall           4


Monday, January 24, 2022

Review of Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance by Angela Duckworth

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Decision Making

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Elaborate Review
Overview:
Grit is the combination of passion and perseverance.  Passion provides the direction for effort.  Perseverance provides the ferocious determination.  High performance is built on doing mundane acts over and over again for a very long time.  Git is the ability to not giving up.  To keep working at those skills even after setbacks.  Talent and effort matter for achievements, but effort counts twice.  Talent is how individuals learn to improve their skills.  It takes effort to build those skills.  But skills without effort leaves just skills.  It takes effort to make use of the skills, to make them productive.  Not just applying those skills, making those skills useful to other people.  Interest in an endeavor usually starts self-oriented, but becomes oriented to being useful to others.  Although there is a struggle to develop those skills, the rewards are well worth the effort.  Putting in the effort and doing the tasks is satisfying when they are part of the general interest.

Developing skills and expertise takes a lot longer than normally assumed.  Skills can be built by anyone over a vey long time, but not everyone is willing to go through what it takes to built those skills.  Mythologizing natural talent allows individuals not build those skills because they are thought of as incapable of being built.  Allows individuals to accept the status quo.  To not feel a need to compete.

It is less about the intensity of effort, and more about the consistency over time.  To consistently show up to do the tasks needed.  To not give up when things are difficult.  Most of the time, the practice is never seen.  The hours of becoming do not make an appearance.  What is usually seen is what has become.  The final product is seen, not the mistake-ridden practice to get to the final product.

Satisfaction at a job depends on personal interest, and performance is better when what is done is of interest.  Work and tasks can be the same, but different individuals can have their subjective experience be very different.  Joy comes before understanding how it can benefit others.  Purpose starts self-oriented, then self-disciplined practice, the becomes other-oriented.  The sacrifices that an individual makes when they are in the becoming stage, is worth it because it benefits other people after.

Interests are found by interacting with the world.  Discovering what captures attention and what does not.  A calling and interest are developed, rather than magically appear.  Gritty people tend to embody their goals.  Goals that have underlying subgoals that help achieve the ultimate goal.  Quitting is acceptable when the commitment is finished, and it does not serve the main goal.

Caveats?
As the book focuses on not giving up, it is biased in favor of not going up.  Although reasons for quitting are provided, they are underdeveloped.  There are a lot of sunk costs of sticking to what the individual thinks might be beneficial in the future, but ends up not being beneficial at all.  Not giving up under certain conditions can turn the activity into an enormous waste of time and money. 

Grit generally makes people better off and likely to succeed.  The question then is what it means to succeed.  Being on a relatively higher position to peers within an area is the success that is recognized in this book.  This creates the bias that individuals highlighted in the book have all become successful, but there might have been many others who have been just as gritty, but did not succeed to the same level.

Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What is grit?
•What does it mean to have passion?
•What does it mean to have perseverance?
•How do high performing individuals become high performing individuals? 
•Where does talent come from?
•What is the purpose of practice?
•Why does effort count twice?
•For what purpose do individuals develop skills? 
•How to find an interest?
•What role does having interest have on performance? 
•When should an individual quit? 
•How is the state of flow part of grit? 
•Are humans meant to be eudaimonic or hedonic? 

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  9781501111129
Pages to read:   245
Publication:     2016
1st Edition:      2016
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall           5





Wednesday, January 19, 2022

Review of First Conquest by David VanDyke

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Novel, Science

Watch the Review

Elaborate Description

Overview:

Until now, humans have been under assault by the Meme empire.  Now humans are taking up the offensive.  Sending the starship Conquest on the first conquest of another stellar system.  This war is being told from a Meme Empire leader SystemLord, and various human perspectives.  Containing the different cultural attributes and military strategies employed.  The traps, decisions, and the gambles made.  But the underlying theme of the book is how to treat others, specifically those that appear to work for the enemy.  The Meme is ranked biologically, creating persecution of blends and native populations of the system called Hippos.  Can these seeming enemies be turned into potential allies?  The consequences of making the wrong decision means servitude to the Meme Empire.  This is a story of the difficult sacrifices that might be needed to survive.  This is a story of the impact of persecution.


Caveats?

This is a fast-paced book in which a lot is going on and the various perspectives sometimes change quickly making it a bit difficult to keep track of what is going on.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What is the Meme Empire?
•What is the structural command of the Meme Empire?
•What is the function of the starship Conquest?
•How has human biology and culture changed? 
•What are the tactics and strategies used?
•Who are the Hippos?

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940152784091
Pages to read:   153
Publication:     2017
1st Edition:      2013
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    4
Content          4
Overall           4

Sunday, January 16, 2022

Review of Sky Hunter by Chris Reher

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Novel, Science

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Elaborate Description

Overview:

Nova is a pilot for the Union, who comes from a military family and is trying to get enough experience to be a Sky Hunter.  Experience that comes while the Union is at war with rebels.  At base, Nova is viciously harassed by fellow crew.  The people responsible harass many others, and they seem to be getting away with their actions.  While on a mission, Nova gets captured.  While a prisoner, Nova finds out information that contradicts the ideals Nova believed in.  Seeing the war from the perspective of other side.  Seeing the impact of the war on the civilians caught in between.  Nova experiences the brutality and toll the war takes up close, which is a viewpoint not seen by pilots who see the action from far away.  Worse, Nova sees the rebels have supplies and weapons that come from the Union.  That means there is a problem with smuggling.  A mystery that needs to be resolved, but proof is needed, and potential key witnesses seem afraid of speaking up.  This is a story about questioning one’s beliefs.  This is a story of what it takes to stand up for what is right. 


Caveats?

The writing sometimes has poor flow which prevent an understanding of what has happened. 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What is Nova’s background?
•Why does the ground crew harass Nova?
•Why do the people who harass Nova and other seem to get away with it?
•What does Nova see while a prisoner?
•Why are there rebels?
•What does the Union want?
•Who are the smugglers and what are they smuggling?
•Describe the different types of aliens. 

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940152784091
Pages to read:   167
Publication:     2017
1st Edition:      2013
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    3
Content          2
Overall           3


Friday, January 14, 2022

Review of Amazing Women In History: 5 Kick-Ass Women the History Books Left Out by Keri Lynn Engel

This review is written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = History

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Review

Overview:

This is a very short book about 5 women that shaped the world.  Mary Anderson shaped the world with an entrepreneurial spirit, creating the windshield wipers that have since become standard.  Stephanie Kwolek shaped the world with the ability to see things differently, experimenting with a chemical solution that would become a fiber which would not easily break and was very stiff, a fiber that saved many lives in the form of bullet-proof vests, and many other applications.  Carmen Amaya shaped the world as an artist, a dancer who broke many traditions to combine various styles, producing with it not only great motion but also a show of emotion.  Katharine McCormick shaped the world through politics and philanthropy, funding the research that created the birth control pill which had giving women a choice.  Ana Nzinga Mbande shaped the world with political power, transforming a kingdom into a commercial state that would be able to defend itself against colonialization.   


Caveats?

As this is a short book, it does not provide much information, but it does pique interest in the lives of these women and a history of influence.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Why were these women left out of history?
•Who was Mary Anderson?  
•How did Mary Anderson shape the world?
•Who was Stephanie Kwolek?  
•How did Stephanie Kwolek shape the world?
•Who was Carmen Amaya?  
•How did Carmen Amaya shape the world?
•Who was Katharine McCormick?  
•How did Katharine McCormick shape the world?
•Who was Ana Nzinga Mbande?  
•How did Ana Nzinga Mbande shape the world?

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940045499118
Pages to read:   15
Publication:     2013
1st Edition:      2013
Format:            eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          3
Overall           3

Wednesday, January 12, 2022

Review of Bypass Gemini by Joseph Lallo

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Novel, Science

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Elaborate Description

Overview:

Lex is a disgraced racer who is in desperate need of an income.  Trying to pay off massive debts, to unsavory people, Lex takes jobs as a freelance courier and chauffeur.  For this one package, discretion is not just advised, it is needed.  The package needs to be delivered without a corporation knowing about it.  A corporation that owns most of the communication and routes between the plants.  In between the delivery, Lex finds out that the one who requested the delivery, has died in an accident with many others.  It becomes evident that the corporation is willing to sacrifice innocent lives to prevent the package from being delivered.  But what is so important in this package to warrant such an aggressive response?  What secrets does the package hold that are worth killing over?  Along the way, Lex is on a journey of self-discovery, and attempts to become a better person.  Maybe with the help with a certified mad scientist, and the scientist’s seemingly petty A.I. which does not adhere to the laws of robotics, can they figure out why the corporation wants to eliminate anyone with the knowledge of the package.


Caveats?

As this book has a character development theme, it may take some time to sympathize with the main character.  

Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Why has Lex been disgraced from racing?
•What is Lex personality traits?  Do the traits change over the course of the adventure?
•How do people get around to other planets?
•Why is Lex being targeted by a corporation about a package? 
•What is the corporation willing to do to make sure the package’s contents remain a secret? 
•What is Karter’s character traits?
•What is Ma’s character traits?
•What is some interesting science fiction in this book?  Can some of the science fiction be turned into science?

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940152784091
Pages to read:   260
Publication:     2017
1st Edition:      2011
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          4
Overall           5


Tuesday, January 11, 2022

Review of Uncontrollable Women: Radicals, Reformers and Revolutionaries by Nan Sloane

 This review is written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = History

Watch the Review

Review

Overview:

During a time and place that women were supposed to leave politics to men, many women became activists.  Taking up causes, promoting them, fighting for them, and even dying for them.  Politically active not just for voting rights, but also politically engaged for various other causes, such as freedom of thought and the political structure.  As these women were breaching the social structure of the time, they were persecuted.  Women were oppressed structurally rather than accidentally.  Value systems change with time, with this era being framed by religion and class which influenced the way these women thought about others, as the women in this book held narrow-minded ideas about other people, even other women.  Along the way, a demystification of life for women at the time.  In many of the cases, the women were forced by circumstance to become radical activists as alternatives were not available.  In others, women accepted things as they were.  Providing an account of the social and political circumstances of the time. 


Caveats?

The book can sometimes be a bit difficult to read.  Having background knowledge in British history during the 18th-19th century would be very helpful in understanding many of this book’s topics and references. 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•How to describe British tolerance? 
•Why did women write? 
•Why was oppression against women structural rather than accidental? 
•What were the causes that the women fought for? 
•How did women live during the time?
•Were these women feminists?
•What did these women think about other people?  Classes?  Women?

Book Details
This book was provided by NetGalley
Edition ISBN:  9781838606633
Pages to read:   262
Publication:     2022
1st Edition:      2022
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    4
Content          5
Overall           4


Thursday, January 6, 2022

Review of Hard Duty by Mark E. Cooper

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = Novel, Science

Watch the Review


Elaborate Description

Overview:

Humanity was nearby eradicated with a previous alien encounter.  The Merkiaari retreated, but expected to return.  During this more peaceful time, humans have made their own conflicts, but also sent out distant survey missions.  As the ships would be out of contact for prolonged periods of time, survey missions were considered hard duty.  During Captain Colgan’s survey mission, they encounter a signal from an alien species.  The crew needs to properly observe the species, known as Shan, without creating a potential conflict.  The efforts of first contact are expressed from various perspectives such as military, civilian, scientist, human, and Shan.  This is a story of the many difficult sacrifices that may become needed to initiate friendly contact.  The curiosity and danger of what an unknown species can bring.  There is much that the Shan and humans can teach each other.  But there is a danger of conflict, which can bring about another extermination type event.  How will the humans and Shan make first contact?

 

Caveats?

There are some perspectives in the book that seem not to have a connection to this book.  Although they do add a layer to an understanding of the politics and life of the times.  The perspectives are possibly important for this book’s sequels. 


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book

•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•Who are the Merkiaari?
•How has human civilization changed?
•What are some human politics?
•What are the Shan like?
•What are some Shan politics? 
•What are the problems with a first contact situation?
•What is hard duty?
•What can the Shan and humans learn from one another? 

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  2940152784091
Pages to read:   289
Publication:     2017
1st Edition:      2012
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall           5

Tuesday, January 4, 2022

Review of Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492-1763 by Henry Kamen

This review was written by Eugene Kernes

Book can be found in:
Genre = History, Empires 

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Elaborate Review
Overview:
The identity of Spain did not begin before the 18th century, as before they were a collection of territories with hereditary claims.  The Spanish empire was not built by only Spanish peoples.  This book shows who contributed what to the empire.  Development of their capabilities came about through experience with other peoples, and learning from them.  Spain’s territory is the amalgamation of political units of Castile and Aragon, coming about through the marriage of Princess Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon.  Neither had effective political power over their realms as they were in civil war.  The way they unified and pacified the realms was by collaboration and directed violence.  They built a web of relationships that became characteristic of Spanish power.  Tolerance of alternative religions and peoples, turned into intolerance after Spain had become Champion of Christendom.  As Spain did not have much resources, it used a vast trade network to obtain what it needed, paid for silver coming from the New World.    

After Isabella and Ferdinand took the throne of their respective territory, they were able to effectively pacify the realms, stopping the civil wars.  As their territory was in the hands of the nobles which controlled the economy and had the allegiance of vassals, what Isabella and Ferdinand did was develop institutions and mechanisms that enabled collaborations between the nobles, cities, Church, and commercial sectors.  As for the violence, they did not end it, but organize and direct it elsewhere such as religious enemies.  

Isabell and Ferdinand, unlike their successors, traveled their territories constantly.  They were known by their communities.  When they traveled, they took along them judges, so that many disputes could be resolved personally.  A monarchy based on collaboration rather than fear.  Building alliances and preventing constant reprisals from warring nobles.  Stability was achieved using traditional structures of power.  

Spain later had support from popes, who provided Spain with funds.  Fueling a religious motive to the empire.  Muslims and Jews were either baptized or forced to emigrate.  Cultures and identity which were tolerated before, became victims of imperial power.  As Spain became Champion of Christendom, alternative religions were not tolerated.  The intolerance was law and ideal, but the rigid attitudes could not be enforced in practice. 

Expansion of Spanish territories required international support by those who had the means of colonial enterprise.  Spain itself did not have the economic ability to expand.  Early in the 16th century, Spain had political leaders which tried to create a stable economic system, make communication easier, and build a military might.  Foreigners tended to control the money, which received property rights in payment for the debt.   

Military force was needed to maintain Spanish power, had had little part in its creation.  It was the collaboration of powerful political elites and enterprising traders across multiple nations that brought the Spanish empire into existence.  Precious metal was key to development, rather than conquest.  Spain was depended on imports for some products such as arquebuses and cannonballs, while also needing army supplies that came from foreign sources.  When Spain was threatened politically by specific nations, foreign interests came to Spain’s defense because they did not want to lose their income.

Conquest did not automatically mean that the conquered accepted what the conquerors decreed.  To put their laws and culture on others, they needed to be understood.  That required communication and time, the former was difficult and the latter long.  

Spain is intimately tied to the New World, the Americas.  There was not that much conquest to the subjugation.  More complicated than just subjugation.  Nor were the conquistadors often soldiers, as they came from different occupations.  When Spain tried to expand, they used adventurers to establish control, but then needed to bring the adventurers under control.  Spain issued rules and regulations, but they were ignored in practice.  

There was great animosity between the various American groups, which the different groups wanted to use the conquistadors to enable them to overcome their opposition, and the conquistadores tapped into this animosity to fulfil their goals of greed.  Using native supernatural symbols against the enemies.  It was less the few conquistadors that overcame improbable odds, and more their very high number of allies that enabled them to overcome obstacles.  Not military superiority, but an ability to adapt to unfavorable conditions. 

Many regions of the Americas were difficult to subjugate.  Other regions remained free because Spaniards had no reason to intrude.  The Spanish did not desire to destroy the natives as that would hurt their own interests in subjugated labor, but there was no hesitation of using extreme violence for security and land.

Caveats?
An easy book to read but can be hard to keep track of who is who politically.  The political spheres of influence are complex.  


Questions to Consider while Reading the Book
•What is the raison d’etre of the book?  For what purpose did the author write the book?
•What is Spain?
•How did Isabella and Ferdinand handle their territories?
•Who did Isabella and Ferdinand have to collaborate with? 
•What political maneuvering did Spanish leaders use? 
•What peoples facilitated the brining about of Spanish power?
•Why did Spain become intolerant?
•Were Spain’s laws enforced? 
•What role did the New World play in the Spanish Empire? 
•What role did globalization have in Spanish power? 

Book Details
Edition ISBN:  9780060932640
Pages to read:   518
Publication:     2004
1st Edition:      2003
Format:           eBook

Ratings out of 5:
Readability    5
Content          5
Overall           5